By analyzing the Wikipedia content for this crisis over a year from the day of the explosion, this study found that the crisis information at the fingertips of the public was a top loading in search engines, had a higher number of views and more edits than the main BP article, predominately contained negative content, and had high levels of news media references.
A longitudinal content analysis of tone and referencing was conducted over the course of one year between April and April of the three Wikipedia articles on BP, the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, the Deepwater Horizon Explosion. In addition, editing patterns and search result rankings for the Wikipedia articles were examined. The findings of this study are a call to action for public relations practitioners.
They demonstrate that Wikipedia expands the conventional practice of public relations by providing another medium to monitor. A total of A small subgroup provided additional blood samples for quality assurance. If the participant had not collected a first morning void, a clean catch spot urine sample was collected during the visit.
Toenail clippings were collected from each toe. If possible toenail samples were too short, participants were given a self-collection kit to mail samples to us. Additional details about biological and environmental specimen collection, processing, handling, shipping, and storage are available elsewhere Engel et al. Participant reports and medical referral. At the conclusion of the home visit, participants were given reports with their body mass index, blood pressure, and dipstick urinary glucose test results and interpretation.
Medical referrals were given if requested. After centralized review and interpretation, results from pulmonary function tests were mailed to participants with the previously shared findings and recommendations for seeking care. Field staff were trained to identify urgent physical or mental health issues e.
If necessary, participants were referred to a nearby federally qualified health center or emergency facility. Field staff contacted emergency services when needed, and participants were connected to suicide prevention hotlines when appropriate. Initially, jobs and tasks were the basis of a preliminary exposure assessment. Due to the weathering of the oil, vessel, vessel type, location, and time periods were later identified as possible determinants of individual exposure levels.
The ultimate goal of the GuLF STUDY is to have quantitative exposure estimates for total hydrocarbons THC and BTEX-H benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, hexane as these oil-related chemicals comprised most of the air measurements taken during the spill and are generally considered to be the more toxic components.
Special Section on Oil Spill Response Risk Communication
Exposure estimates for dispersants and particulates from burning were also desired because of their association with some health effects and because of concerns raised by the public. Participants also provided information on heat stress and other work-related exposures and on sleeping quarters.
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More than 28, full-shift, personal air monitoring samples were collected on workers by BP contractors to characterize exposure to OSRC chemicals from April through June A large proportion of these measurements was below the reported limits of detection when analyzed based on occupational exposure limits. We evaluated strategies for dealing with censored data and developed methods to leverage the censored data on THC to develop estimates for other BTEX-H chemicals Huynh et al. Unique combinations of these factors were identified that were expected to have similar distributions of THC exposure.
Different metrics can be developed for different exposure—response scenarios and assumptions. For example, we estimated the maximum exposure by identifying the maximum level across all estimates assigned to an individual to create a person-specific maximum exposure metric. Quantitative exposure estimates for inhaled THC and specific chemicals e. In addition to providing information about the study, these mailings keep the address database up-to-date.
Case Study: BP Oil Spill
Study participants will be followed via telephone interview every 2—3 years; the first round took place from May through May The cohort will be followed for mortality and cancer incidence and, if feasible, for other outcomes using electronic medical records. After de-duplicating these source files, we identified , presumably unique individuals, but only 44, had sufficient contact information for recruitment. We supplemented our primary source files with 18, unique names from a variety of other sources Appendix 1. Thus, our recruitment master file consisted of 62, apparently unique individuals with presumed accurate contact information.
Case Study: BP Oil Spill
After placing calls to the names on file, we determined that 1, were duplicates, were deceased, 1, were ineligible, and 1, had communication difficulties or were unavailable during the time window, leaving 58, presumably eligible participants. Of these, 22, opted out or broke off telephone contact before eligibility was determined. Of these, participants completed an abbreviated interview in Vietnamese. Participants represent the full range of worker identification sources Table 2.
The majority The remainder, including responders from the Coast Guard and other federal agencies e. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , as well as others with unique skills or interest in job opportunities, came from elsewhere in the United States Figure 1. There were few noteworthy differences between workers and those who trained but were not hired nonworkers. More workers than nonworkers lived outside of the Gulf states Most participants worked for a BP contractor Only 2. A total of 9. Finally, A total of 25, English- or Spanish-speaking Gulf state residents were eligible for the home visit.
Characteristics of the Gulf state residents eligible for the home visit and those who completed a home visit are also shown in Table 3. Those who completed the home visit were older than those eligible They were more often black Home visit participants were more likely to have performed OSRC work The study is investigating a wide range of potential physical and mental health outcomes among individuals engaged in cleaning up the DWH spill and is the largest study of its kind.
It was designed as a prospective study to account for spatial and temporal variations in exposure as well as the large variety of OSRC jobs that participants performed. Studies of health effects of previous oil spills have generally had weaknesses that the GuLF STUDY addresses, including small sample size, cross-sectional designs focused on short-term outcomes, limited follow-up duration, or limited exposure assessment Aguilera et al.
The study is designed to evaluate both short- and long-term outcomes of interest with particular emphasis on respiratory and neurologic outcomes, which have been reported to manifest acutely with potentially persistent effects Aguilera et al. Although acute outcomes could not be captured in real time, we asked participants to report on symptoms they experienced at the time of the spill. This allows us to evaluate acute effects and, to the extent that such symptoms were or were not present at the time of interview, their persistence.
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We also hope to extend follow-up long enough to address community concerns about potentially increased cancer risk. Comparison groups. The choice of an appropriate comparison group is always difficult, but the selection was especially complex in this case. The DWH oil spill was unprecedented in size and scope. Thus, in addition to the potential for direct exposures to oil and dispersants during OSRC work, participants may have had OSRC-related exposures due to living near the coast that those living further away did not have.
These include psychological and socioeconomic stressors associated with the closing of fisheries and reduced tourism and uncertainty about when the massive clean-up effort would be complete. By including predominantly local individuals who sought but did not obtain OSRC work, we included a comparison group who did not have work-related oil spill exposures, but who would potentially have similar nonoccupational oil spill experiences.
Nonetheless, there were measured and potentially unmeasured differences between those who did and did not obtain OSRC work that may affect interpretation of health comparisons between these groups. We considered the possibility of including a comparison group from unaffected counties or states, but the Gulf Coast region differs substantially from others in major health indicators, industries, and sociodemographic factors.
This diversity of experiences will allow us to compare groups of workers who differ in their exposure to specific toxicants while taking into account other relevant measures associated with their nonoccupational experiences. Depending on the question of interest, workers can be compared with nonworkers or with workers who had lower levels of exposure to specific agents. Comparisons can be also restricted to subgroups defined by residence in or removed from affected communities.
Participation rates. It is difficult to determine the exact number of OSRC workers. Even from those records, it was often difficult to tell whether we had unique names or duplicates, due to spelling errors and missing data fields.
Contacting employers of the workers was not feasible because hundreds of contractors and subcontractors worked for BP. Despite our best efforts, we were able to obtain contact information for only 62, individuals. Much of the contact information that was collected from OSRC workers was intended for purposes other than research e. We lacked Social Security numbers for many workers, hindering some tracing efforts. Although this is not uncommon in the immediate demands of disaster response Lurie et al. Moreover, there was a tendency for multiple people to provide the same phone number or address e.
We used a commercial tracing service to obtain the most recent contact information available on potential participants. This approach was most useful, however, for those with relatively complete personal information.
exaldesbidimdi.ga The extent of discrepant information between the administratively collected contact information and that obtained through tracing highlights one of the challenges faced in locating disaster remediation personnel and members of highly mobile populations Kennedy and Vargus In the GuLF STUDY, contact difficulties were exacerbated by the high use of disposable mobile phones and a tendency to inactivate and reactivate phone service. Once we were able to reach an individual, a number of factors could have contributed to nonparticipation, including distrust of the federal government and a litigious legal environment.
Although we cannot fully quantify the loss of contact, there is certainly potential for participation bias.