Play an active role in reducing water pollution by conserving water at all time. You can achieve this by ensuring the taps are always turned off when they are not in use. Conserving water reduces the amount of contaminated water that needs to be treated. Insist on using environmentally safe products. Practice tree planting.
Planting trees reduce the speed of surface water runoff and as such, lessens erosion and prevents toxic substances and chemicals from washing into water systems. If you live next to a water body, please take this initiative today and plant trees and vegetation covers such as flowers, grass, and shrubs.
Re-use automobile oil as much as possible and keep your vehicle well maintained. Re-using automobile oil reduces the amount of used oil that is discarded which may end up polluting water bodies. Also, it is essential to keep your vehicle well maintained so as to prevent the leakage of deadly fluids like oil and antifreeze. Support green-oriented companies. These are the companies that take creative initiatives to reduce water pollution.
For instance, some green cleaning product companies make the packaging materials by using recycling plastics collected from the oceans. Also, some sewage treatment firms now clean wastewater without the use of chemicals. Supporting and using the services of such companies can greatly help reduce water pollution.
Use super energy saving washing machines. When purchasing washing machines, ensure you buy energy star approved washing equipment which can save energy and up to 60 liters of water. Eventually, it reduces the amount of wastewater that needs treatment.
What are the main types of water pollution?
De-clog your drains naturally. The typical drain cleaners contain several noxious chemicals such as sodium hydroxide. You can instead use natural methods such as pouring equal portions of white vinegar, boiling water and baking soda and let it stay in the drain for 30 minutes before rinsing. Always opt for recyclable and reusable options.
Reusable and recycled materials avoid the unnecessary use of water. By using these options, it, therefore, means you are conserving water. At the same time, you are minimizing the amount of waste water produced during production and processing. This should also include re-using dishware and linens such as towels and bed sheets. Skip the use of plastics. Plastic leftovers such as used plastic water bottles, disposable plastic plates, and plastic bags frequently end up in the oceans, lakes, streams and rivers, contaminating natural habitats and destroying aquatic life.
Prevention and solutions to water pollution
Dispose motor oil, batteries or antifreeze at specially assigned collection points. Ensure each and every time you want to dispose used engine oil, batteries or antifreeze you do so at designated collection points to avoid the unnecessary contamination of ecosystems which may end up polluting surface and ground waters. Keep your boat well maintained if you have one or in charge of any.
Ensure your boat is in good condition at all times to avoid toxic substances from leaking into the water. Only wash when you have a full load. By washing only when you have full loads of laundry and dishware, you can save tons of water while also reducing the amount of contaminated water that has to be treated. Pick up pet waste. Pet waste might contain harmful bacteria which can flow into storm drains and contaminate water systems. Practice organic farming. Organically grown crops reduce the quantity of herbicides and pesticides used in farming.
It also promotes the use of organic fertilizer which promotes natural growth and eliminates the use of toxic chemicals found in synthetic fertilizers, which can penetrate into the ground and pollute water supplies. Contact the local water protection and conservation authority whenever you notice any pollution activities. Take the initiative of promptly contacting the relevant local water conservation office when you notice any kind of pollutant or chemical being discharged or injected into water bodies.
Industrialization, in any society, is a major initiator of development and urbanization. Although the merits of industrialization are innumerable, it has been identified as a major threat to the environment as it releases various toxic chemicals, gases, solid wastes as well as microbes of various kinds into our immediate environment—land, air, and water. Of particular interest is water pollution, which has become a global challenge, developing nations being highly affected due to their drive for development [ 1 , 2 ].
Pollution of our water bodies poses a great threat to humans and the aquatic ecosystem while marked population increase catalyzes climatic changes [ 3 ]. For instance, various human activities as well as the release of greenhouse gases by industries greatly contributes to global warming, planet temperature enhancement, and lowering of atmospheric air quality. The drive for sustainable development must bring along water pollution prevention techniques. Effective wastewater treatment before their eventual discharge is one way to driving water pollution prevention.
Some remediate climate change mitigation measures against water pollution can also be explored. This chapter is aimed at critically discussing water pollution effects viz-a-viz global challenges, threat, and climatic impacts while also focusing on various possible preventive measures. Sustainable development in any society is an access to initiate a good standard of living for the populace. It aims at providing solutions to the economic, environmental, and societal challenges without posing a threat to human and environmental future development, that is, we must consider the future as we make present decisions.
Also, these include social progress and equality, environmental protection, conservation of natural resources, and stable economic growth [ 4 ]. There are numerous instances where urbanization has destroyed the environment and threatened its survival chances. Sustainable development put into consideration how we survive in the natural world protecting it from destruction and damages. One of the major challenges of urbanization is sustainability, as most developed or developing society now revitalizes a lot of natural resources daily.
Most of these resources meet the needs of man but they are also limited. Sustainable development tends to balance the competing needs of the society. In achieving this, many science bodies and institutions have seen the requisite of sustainable development and have set goals and targets to meet it. This also has pushed such institutions to have a role in measuring and monitoring the impact of these goals on the society.
However, the contribution of scientist in sustainable development should not only focus on the environment. It should also take into consideration the health of the populace in ensuring that no area of life suffers [ 5 ]. While sustainable development may mean different things to different people, environmental sustainability is all encompassing. It is directly concerned with the future of humanity, and it defines how we should protect and handle the sustainability of resources, air quality, water quality, and ecosystems.
It also helps to prevent the environment from impending damage from technological advancement. One way to achieving environmental sustainability is via effective wastewater treatment. Various conventional wastewater treatment methods are available; their characteristics vary from complexities of operations through sludge generations among other things to various inadequacies.
Their economic disadvantages are widely related to expensive equipment, complexities of operations and skilful manpower requirement. Many industries avoid the conventional wastewater treatment methods due to their economic disadvantages, hence discharging untreated or fairly treated wastewater into the water bodies. A simple and cheap wastewater treatment method will therefore facilitate effective wastewater treatment and protect the water environment from pollution.
Water is an essential and general need of life with an undeniable effect directly or indirectly. All industrial, environmental, and metabolic processes are water dependent. In living organisms, water plays a number of roles such as solvent, temperature buffer, metabolite, living environment, and lubricants [ 6 ].
Water, however, is said to be polluted when some of the water quality parameters have been hampered by unguided and irregularities from several anthropogenic activities, thus rendering water unfit for intended use. Water pollution may pose serious threat to the environment as well as lives. Pollutant effects may vary depending on their types and source.
For instance, while heavy metals, dyes, and some other organic pollutants have been identified as carcinogens, hormones, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics and personal care product wastes are known as endocrine disruptive chemicals [ 7 ]. These pollutants, which enter into the water body through various channel but predominantly anthropogenic, have become a great concern to environmentalists due to various hazard they pose on the environment.
Heavy metals top the list of inorganic pollutant with wide range of negative effects on aquatic organisms, plants, and human.
Heavy metals are released into the environment via different routes such as industries, mining activities, agricultural activities etc. Bioavailable metals present in the soil may be absorbed by plants resulting in serious plant metabolism dysfunctioning [ 9 ].ciabridvate.tk
How to Control Water Pollution
High heavy metal ion concentrations are also known to damage the cell membrane, affect enzyme involved in chlorophyll production, thus reducing photosynthetic rate as well as affect plant reproduction via decrease in pollen and seed viability [ 10 ]. Humans and animals can be exposed to heavy metal toxicity through the food web, direct consumption of water containing metal or via inhalation [ 11 ]. Heavy metals readily bioaccumulates in vegetables and enters into man and animal through food chain. Effects of heavy metal toxicity on human ranges from mild eye, nose and skin irritations through severe headache, stomach ache, diarrhea, hematemesis, vomiting, dizziness to organ dysfunctioning such as cirrhosis, necrosis, low blood pressure, hypertension, and gastrointestinal distress [ 12 ].
While some heavy metals also called essential elements cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, vanadium, and zinc are required in minute amount in the body for various biochemical processes; others such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury are of serious threat and considered foreign in the body. Looking at specifics, human ingestion of water polluted with arsenic can cause cancer of the lungs, liver, and bladder.
Kidney and lungs damage as well as bone fragility may result when cadmium containing water is ingested. Exposure to lead can severely damage the brain and kidneys. In children, lead exposure even at very low concentration may hamper learning, cause memory loss, affect attention and response functions, and generally make children aggressive [ 13 , 14 ].
In pregnant women, high levels of exposure to lead may cause miscarriage, whereas in men, it can damage the organs responsible for sperm production.